Sunday, May 24, 2020

Cathedral - 1097 Words

Cathedral There are many themes in the short story â€Å"Cathedral,† some of them include the Cathedral itself and the difference between looking at something and really seeing something. Throughout the short story you see how people have different personalities and see how fast a person can change. The Cathedral and the audiotapes mean much more to both main characters than just an object or a building. In the beginning of the story the narrator is completely disgusted at the thought of a blind man being in his house because of all the false things he’s heard about people who can’t see. Peoples perceptions change rapidly once they get to know someone, and in this case when the narrator got to know Robert the blind man, he realized that he†¦show more content†¦This short story helps make people understand that there is always more to the world than you know and there is always more to learn. Imagine if a complete stranger came into your life and changed all your views on the world and had you rethink the way you’ve been living your entire life. You, too, would want to keep your eyes closed. This theme is important because people go their entire lives looking but not really seeing. In the beginning of the story, the blind man asks to see the wife’s face, â€Å"(blind peoples) sense of touch is no keener than the average person s, but the more frequent use of touch enables them to more quickly and efficiently analyze the things they touch† (Bowles). As humans, we overlook the small things and concentrate on the big and in doing so, we fail to realize that the little things are sometimes the hugely important factors in life. This can also go along with not judging people right away; do not judge a book by it’s cover. Nowhere in the story does it describe how the narrator felt after the blind man drew a Cathedral with him, but you can tell by the words he used that he had never felt more alive. He felt like he was in an empty world and opening his eyes would only remind him of the nothingness he’s been living. The narrator says many things that makes it obvious that he is fully capable or looking but that he does not see any solution to fixing his life. He is leading a boring life he hates with no communicationShow MoreRelatedCathedral684 Words   |  3 PagesCathedral It is an ongoing problem that people are narrow-minded and have preconceptions. It does no one good and is an obstacle in your everyday life. By closing your eyes, the other senses, like feeling, hearing and smelling, tune in and take over. A lot can be learned from these senses and new truths can be unrevealed. In the short story Cathedral, the main character stops his prejudices and sees a new truth. The short story Cathedral takes place in the 1990s in a married couple’s house inRead MoreThe Cathedral Of Canterbury Cathedral1209 Words   |  5 PagesThe word Cathedral is a Latin word for chair â€Å"Cathedra† which was taken from the Greek ‘Kathedra’ meaning seat. The Canterbury Cathedral is located in England, United Kingdom. The Cathedral is one of the most famous and oldest Christian structures in England. 597 AD was the founding of Canterbury Cathedral. The cathedral’s physical context is located in a sprawl area meaning there is low density residential, there are many other attractions around such as the theatre,hotel and museum. Saint AugustineRead MoreAnalysis Of Cathedral By Raymond Carver1541 Words   |  7 PagesA New Perspective Everyone at one point has judged a book by its cover. In the short story, â€Å"Cathedral†, Raymond Carver creates a narrator who bases off ideas and assumptions about blind people from movies. The narrator has never interacted with a blind person before the day where his wife invites her friend, who is named Robert, to stay. The narrator and Robert have never met, but the narrator has a strong dislike towards Robert before meeting. The narrator’s closed-mindedness and misconceptionsRead MoreCathedral As A Central Catholic Church1122 Words   |  5 PagesCathedral is a central Catholic church. Differences between cathedrals and churches are that cathedrals are the seat of the bishop and a centre of worship and mission. (The Association of English Cathedrals) Because it s a central of Catholic churches, all the Catholic churches around a cathedral receives order and worship services from it. Cathedrals are known for central position in Catholic, but what we have to fo cus is beauty of their art of structures and art of symbolism. There are many CatholicRead MoreEssay on The Cathedral by Raymond Carver980 Words   |  4 PagesCathedral is a short story ultimately about enlightment, finding something more meaningful and deeper with in one self. Although from an observing point of view nothing more in the story happens then a blind man assisting the narrator in drawing a cathedral. Although as known, the narrators experience radically differs from what is actually observed. He is enlightened and opened up to a new world of vision and imagination. This brief experience will have a life long effect on him. The reasonRead MoreT.S.Eliot Murder in the Cathedral1975 Words   |  8 PagesT.S. Eliots Murder in the Cathedral tells the story of Thomas Beckett, a man who reigned as Archbishop of Canterbury during the 12th century in England until his death in 1170. In order to tell Becketts story, Eliot creates a series of equally interesting characters that each play a crucial role thought the play. The most unique rolefound within the play is the Women ofCanterbury, or the Chorus. Throughout the piece, the Chorus delivers seven choral odes. These choral odes, when looked at as aRead MoreLooking Beyond the Surface at Raymond Carvers Cathedral660 Words   |  3 PagesIt seems in life that we often look at things without really seeing them. Raymond Carver demonstrates in â€Å"Cathedral† that looking is associated to physical vision, but seeing involves a deeper level of commitment. The author is making the point when you put yourself into someone elses shoes and allow yourself to see things the way they see them, it can be the most rewarding and eye opening experience. During the exposition, the narrator shows that he has no problems with eyesight and he is capableRead MoreDurham Cathedral Essay854 Words   |  4 PagesDurham Cathedral Durham Cathedral is one of the oldest examples of Romanesque architecture present in England today. Although the cathedral was completed in the early 12th century there are signs of Gothic architecture present due to the close relation of Romanesque and Gothic styles. In Robert Scotts book The Gothic Enterprise he discusses how the early Gothic style pulled heavily from the Romanesque style of architecture and built upon its basic themes. Durham Cathedrals extensive historyRead MoreThe Canterbury Cathedral Essay2561 Words   |  11 PagesThe Canterbury Cathedral For at least fourteen hundred years the worship of God has been offered on the site of this Cathedral, and through the prayers of the Church his power and grace have shaped human lives. Ever since the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket in the Cathedral in 1170, Canterbury has attracted thousands of pilgrims. This tradition continues to this day, and a large team of Welcomers, Guides, Cathedral Assistants and Chaplains are there to give all visitors a warm welcomeRead MoreAnalysis Milan Cathedral, Italy Essay751 Words   |  4 Pagesthe middle of Milan, Italy in the Piazzo del Duomo is Milan Cathedral, the largest Gothic cathedral and the second largest Catholic cathedral in the world. The exterior and interior appearances are aw-inspiring, commanding respect in our modern day time period and long ago during the time periods in which the Milan Cathedral was constructed. The cathedral also earned respect by being the center for community functions. The Milan Cathedral has outer height of 215 ft and a maximum width of 302 ft allowing

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Introduction Background of the Study - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 3837 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Good corporate governance is the key for the business organization success. Corporate governance explained the rules of governing: board structure, managersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and boardsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ incentive compensation, decision right by the board and the CEO, succession of the board and CEO, shareholder voting, debt/equity finance, disclosure concerning takeover and etc. Thus, the corporate governance can be defined as a set how the institutional arrange and effect the corporate decision making (Ball, 1998). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Introduction Background of the Study" essay for you Create order Due to the poor corporate governance, the Asian 1997/98 crisis has affected many companies including the Government Link Companies (GLC) around the region because of the poor corporate governance practices which reflected the corporate decision making. Previous researchers have found poor corporate governance consists of over-leveraging (Fraser, D.R, C.Derasid, 2006); lacks of accountability, transparency and financial disclosure (Mitton, 2002) have influences to the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s failure. Furthermore, in the United States, many latest financial reporting scandals have been caused by the poor corporate governance which has oversight during the financial reporting process (Agrawal Chadha, 2005). Most of the corporate governance failures cases recorded in Malaysia are related to billing scheme fraud, financial statement fraud, employeesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ fraud and misappropriation of assets (Haron, 2006). Economic crime actual statistic 2007 showed Asset misappropriation (36%), Corruption and bribery (24%), Accounting Fraud (15%), Money Laundering (5%), IP infringement (9%) and others (7%) cases ( PwC Alert Issue No.72, 2007). Thus, based on the PwC Alert statistic explained that the poor corporate governance caused for the economic crime. This statistical information has motivates this study to examine further the impact on the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast which influence by the corporate governance. 2.0 Problem Statement Accuracy of the analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast depends on many factors that derive to achieve the accuracy of earning. Analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ are the information available in the capital market that links the financial and non-financial information to estimate the earnings (Schipper, 1991). The accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast also linkages to the corporate governance. Previous study shows better corporate governance tends to issue more specific accuracy of the analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast (Ajinkya, Bhoraj, Sengupta, 2005). Byard and Weintrop (2006) find better corporate governance firm contribute to better analyst forecast. The prior studies show the relationship between the corporate governance has influence the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. There are underlying theories such as agency cost where describe the problem between the principal and agent which the accounting asymmetric information exits between the parties. In this study , the researchers believe corporate governance is to reduce information asymmetric. This study chooses the agency theory because ownership structure is use as one of the control variable where the researcher believes the selected companies will have separation between ownership and management which will cause to agency problem. Previous study find managers have more on long term interest rather than the interest of shareholder (Winter, 1999). The problem arises between the manager and shareholder affected the positive role of corporate governance practised in the company. Furthermore, the revised of Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance (MCCG) in October 2007 has enhanced the corporate governance practised in the several aspects. The changes in MCCG have motivated this study to find the influence of MCCG before the revised and after the revised toward the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast in public listed companies. This study will examine the factors of corporate governance that influence the dispersion and error of accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. Thus, the problem statement for this study is to examine the dispersion and error of accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast influence by the corporate governance structure. 2.1 Research Questions 1. What is the effect of corporate governance to the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast? 2. How the corporate governance factors influence the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast? 3. What are the effects of MCCG revised toward the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast? 2.2 Research Objectives Corporate governance reduces the accounting information asymmetric between a company and investors. 2. Board of director efficient role in corporate governance influence the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. 3. The revised MCCG do enhance the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. 3.0 Significance of the Study. The accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast is an important key to enhance the investors confident. The confident levels of investors are depending on the market demand of an organisation which measure by using the available informationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s in the public to forecast the company performance. This study will use corporate governance variables such as the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“CEO Duality Structure, the independent of the Board, The size of the Board and The Governance Role of Audit Committees. Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast will act as a proxy for the quality of the firmsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ efficiency and effectiveness to achieve the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. Furthermore, to relate between the analystà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"s forecast accuracy and firmsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ governance, this study includes two set of control variable such as firmsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ ownership structure and forecast horizon that affects the analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢ „ ¢ forecast accuracy (Byard, Li, Wintrop, 2006). Previous study finds that poor corporate governance tends to reduce the confident level of investors (Noordin, 1999). Prior researchers find poor corporate governance leads to mistake in reporting the financial progress (Agrawal Chadha, 2005). Based in many empirical studies, this study will contribute to enhance the investor confident level and identifies which corporate governance variables are contributes and influence to achieve the accuracy of forecast analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Furthermore, the revised in Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance in 2007 will impact to the company existing corporate governance. Thus, this study will examine the effect of prior and after effects on corporate governance to the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. 4.0 Literature Review Corporate governance can be defined as a set on how the institutional arrangement can affect the corporate decision making (Ball, 1998). Corporate governance describes the rules of governing: board structure, managersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and boardsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ incentive compensation, right decision made by the board and the CEO, succession of the board and CEO, shareholder voting, debt/equity finance, disclosure concerning takeover and etc (Verhoven, 1998). While another researcher define corporate governance as whole control systems where a company is directed and controlled with the basic focus toward the role of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“governorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? of the company which is the board of directors (Haron, 2006). The corporate governance will determine how well the organization performance and contribute for good decision making when confronted with the uncertainty issues. The current uncertainty economics condition has weakened many companies around the world because of poor corporate governance. The 1997/98 Asian financial crisis has revealed that lack of corporate governance practices in Malaysia has contributed to the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s failure during the crisis (Wahab, C.Y.How, Verhoeven, 2007). Poor corporate governance leads to mistake in reporting the financial progress (Agrawal Chadha, 2005). Poor corporate governance that identify by previous researchers are such as over-leveraging (Fraser, D.R, C.Derasid, 2006); lack of accountability, transparency and financial disclosure (Mitton, 2002) has influence to the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s failure. Other researchers find during the crisis, variables under the corporate governance are the most explained proportion of the excha nge rate variation, performance of stock market and the other economic variables (Johnson, Boone, Breach, Friedman, 2000). Based on the previous studies, this study is interested to explore about the corporate governance effects on the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast in public listed companies in Bursa Malaysia. The previous researchers find better corporate governance firm contribute to better accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast ( (Byard, Li, Weintrop, 2006). Factors that influencing the good corporate governance are: (i) quality board of directors, (ii) quality audit committee, (iii) effective internal audit function, (iv) quality internal control system in place and (v) independent external auditors (Haron, 2006). In this study, the researcher will examine the corporate governance variables such as the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“CEO Duality Structure, the independent of the Board, The size of the Board and The Independent Director of Audit Committees. Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast will act as a proxy for quality of the firmsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ efficiency and effectiv eness to achieve the accuracy of the analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. Furthermore, to relate between the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast and firmsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ corporate governance, this study includes two set of control variable such as firmsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ ownership structure and forecast horizon that affects the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast (Byard, Li, Wintrop, 2006). 4.1 Corporate Governance 4.1.1 The à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“CEO Dualityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? structure à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“CEO Dualityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? exists when an organization has the person hold the CEO position and at the same time is a chairman of Board of Director in the company. The duality or multiple positions such as chairman and board of director are common practiced among the listed firm in Malaysia (Haron, 2006). Previous researchers find company CEOà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s that acting dual role do have lesser shareholder return (Rechner D.R.Dalton, 1989). However, other researchers find the duality role of a CEO can lead to positive relationship to performance under certain industry condition such as resource scarcity or high complexity and the effect on other economic conditions is negative (Donaldson, 1991). This mean the duality role has negative relationship with the return except under the condition of resources scarcity or high complexity. Another study also finds the presence of CEO Duality in organization has significantly negative relationship with the accuracy of analysts à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006). 4.1.2 The Independent Board of Directors Independent Board of Director who is does not hold any executive position in the organization. The independent directors are responsible to make independent judgments in strategy, performance, resources, key appointment and etc. Thus, the independent board of directors must free from any relationship with the management that will bias during the judgment exercise. Previous study shows, majority number of independent board of director during the tenders offered to biddersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ results zero stock price return (Byrd Hickman., 1992). While the bidders without the independent board suffer statistically loses on 1.8 percent on average (Leng Chang, 2004). Previous study also find the relationship between the proportion of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“inside directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? and bidder stock price return is significantly negative (You, R. Caves, Henry, 1986). The finding shows that organization that have more independent directors tend to be more profitable compare to the organizatio n that has lesser independent directors. Furthermore, the additional of outside directors has pushed the stock price increase on average by 0.2 percent (Rosenstein Wyatt, 1990). The independent board of director has significantly positive relationship with the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006) 4.1.3 Board of Director Size. Board director size is referring to the total number of director exist in the organization. Previous researcher used the agency theory and assumed that larger board will consists of various education background, industrial background, and also skills (Haron, 2006). The quality of an organization to monitor and decision making are depending on the board of directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ size which will determine the organization performance. Thus, what size whether large or small board of directors? The previous study find the board of directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ size should be small because small size will lead the board function effectively (Smale, Patricoft, D.Marcus, D.W.Johnson, 1995). However, the size of the organization also determines the size of the boards: larger the company has larger the number of boards. The consequences of larger board of directors are reduce the ability of board to control CEO (Lipton J.Lorsh, 1992) and slower the decision making (Kole K.Lehn, 1997). P rior studies also do not specified recommended the number of directors but the companies should allow the active boards which have ability to make effective decision and performing their function. 4.1.4 The Independent Director of Audit Committees Audit committee is a committee formally appointed by full board and responsible to consider and report on matters comprised of financial reporting and governance procedures and the organization audit and other matters which referred by the board (Kulansingam, 2002). Several study find presence of an audit committee is associated with lesser incidences of error in financial reporting. For example, previous researcher find organization that has audit committee would likely more reliable financial reporting such as absence of material errors, irregularities and illegal act (Kulansingam, 2002). Klein ( 2002) finds negative relationship between the audit committee and management earning. However, previous study found that more independent audit committee does not improve the quality of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast accuracy (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006). 4.2 Control Variables 4.2.1 Ownership Structure Ownership structure is also known as Board of director ownership where it works as direct incentives to the manager who has the favour to act like the shareholdersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ interest. (Weishbach, 1988). The ownership structure is one of the major corporate governance mechanisms that help to monitor the agency problem (Jensen Meckling, 1976). Control the agency problem in organization able to enhance the firmsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ wealth (McConnell Servaes, 1990). Another researcher find that reduce of agency problem is link to the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast (Hope, 2003). Thus, ownership structures where the top manager holds the more percentage of stocks are likely to make decision to maximizing the shareholdersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ wealth. 4.2.2 Forecast Horizon Based on the previous studies, firm characteristic was included as a control variable to determinant of the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. Forecast horizon is an important element to obtain the accuracy outcome of information. The different duration of forecast period can result different result and assumption. For example, previous study that the shorten forecast horizon tend to result less biased and less extreme (Capstaff, Paudyal, Rees, 1995). This mean the longer the forecast horizon is more exposure to more biased and more extreme. The shorten and longer horizon are depending on the analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ reputation which the longer horizon required more information compare to shorten horizon forecast because the more longer the analysts mean more information available which will affect the analysts credibility. 4.3 Accuracy of Analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Forecast 4.3.1 Dispersion Dispersion occurred when the disagreement among the analyst with the regard to expected Earnings per share (EPS) of a given form (Athanassakos Kalimipalli, 2003). Previous study finds that accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast has negative relationship with dispersion (Imhoff G. J. Lobo, 1992). To overcome this problem, previous researcher finds that availability of information will enhance the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast and reduce the degree of dispersion (Kwon, 2002). Hence, this study will use dispersion result to determine the accuracy earning which influence by corporate governance factors. 4.3.2 Error Forecast error is the difference between the actual or real and the predicted or forecast value of a time series or any other phenomenon of interest. Abarbanell and Bernard (1992) find that errors are positively related to the prior earnings change. The available information is important to obtained forecast accuracy. Ball and Brawn (1968) find that accounting information is use to predict the earning price. Kim and Verrecchia (1991) find the positive relationship between share-price response and the accuracy of management forecasts. While another study find negative relationship between the share-price and management forecasts errors (Laurent, 2000). Based on previous studies, this study will use corporate governance factors to influence the forecast error and determining the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. 5.0 Conceptual Framework Hypotheses Development. Independent Variable Dependent Variable ACCURACY OF ANALYSTSà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ FORECAST CORPORATE GOVERNANCE The independent of the Board 1. Dispersion The size of the Board 2. Error The CEO Duality Structure The Independent of Audit Committee Ownership Structure ii. Forecast Horizon Control Variables Four hypotheses are develops in this study: H1 relates to the link between the independent of Board and accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. H2 relates to the link between the size of Board and accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. H3 relates to the link between the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“CEO Dualityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? structure and accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. H4 relates to link between the independent of Audit Committee and accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. 5.1 The independent of Board and Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. Independent Board of Director who is does not hold any executive position in the organization. Core, Holthausen Larker (1999) specify that fewer independent of Board of director cause to poor monitoring. The independent board of director has significantly positive relationship with the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006). H1: Higher number of independent of board is associated with higher accuracy of analysts forecast. 5.2 Size of Board and Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. Board director size is referring to the total number of director exist in the organization. Previous researcher used the agency theory and assumed that larger board will consists of various education background, industrial background, and also skills (Haron, 2006). Based on Yermack (1996) larger board reduce the board effectiveness. The previous study find the board of directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ size should be small because small size will lead the board function effectively (Smale, Patricoft, D.Marcus, D.W.Johnson, 1995). H2: Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast has negatively associated with the Size of board. 5.3 The à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“CEO Dualityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Structure and Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“CEO Dualityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? exists when an organization has the person hold the CEO position and at the same time is a chairman of Board of Director in the company. The duality or multiple positions such as chairman and board of director are common practiced among the listed firm in Malaysia (Haron, 2006). Prior studies argue find that present of CEO Duality in an organization is reflecting to poor governance (Jensen, 1993; Yermack, 1996). Previous researchers find company CEOà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s that acting dual role do have lesser shareholder return (Rechner D.R.Dalton, 1989) H3: Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast has negatively associated to CEO Duality. 5.4 Independent of Audit Committee and Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast Audit committee is a committee formally appointed by full board and responsible to consider and report on matters comprised of financial reporting and governance procedures and the organization audit and other matters which referred by the board (Kulansingam, 2002). Several study find presence of an audit committee is associated with lesser incidences of error in financial reporting. Klein (2002b) finds that less independent of audit committee cause decreases in earning management. H4: Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast has positively associated with Independent of Audit Committee. 6. Research Methodology 6.1 Sample Selection To pursue this study, firstly the researcher has to select 100 companies which are listed in Bursa Malaysia. The selection of companies is base on random sampling. The researcher will use fully the secondary data in this study. The information sources will basically from the Company Annual Report and Institutional Broker Estimate System (IBES) consist of year 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009. This study uses information from year 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 because the MCCG start revised on 2007. So, this study will examine the effect of corporate governance before revised and after revised. The Annual Report of the selected companies can be obtained from the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s website from internet. IBES provides data to calculate analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast accuracy which can be obtained from DataStream System and the system is available in Management School, University Sains Malaysia. Based on the information, this study will compare the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast between year 2006 to 2007, 2006 to 2008 and 2006 to 2009. This study will use 2006 as the final year of before revised and compare it with the 2007, 2008 and 2009 which are after revised. The implementation of revised corporate governance is mandated to all public listed companies. Thus, this study will examine the effect of the corporate governance before the revised on 2006 and the revised on 2007 until 2009 to the Malaysian Public Listed Companies. Furthermore, this study will examine the different between the actual earning and forecast earning. This will identify the dispersion and error between the actual and forecast earnings. 6.2 Measure the forecast Accuracy To measure the accuracy, this study follows the previous study done by Duru and Reeb (2002). For each firm-year 2006 to 2009, this study will estimate the ACCURACY as the total different between the IBES consent forecast of annual earnings (made 9 months before the earnings announcement date) and the actual annual earnings which reported by IBES. ACCURACY = (-1) (FCAST-ACTUAL) PRICE Where ACTUAL is the actual annual earnings which reported by IBES; FCAST is the consent analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast made nine months before the end of the fiscal year; and PRICE is the closing stock price one day before the consent analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. 6.3 Measure of Corporate Governance This study will use Annual Report of the selected companies to obtain the corporate governance information. This study will look into four (4) dimensions under the corporate governance factors; the independent of the Board, the size of the Board, the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“CEO Dualityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? structure and the independent of Audit Committee. Based on the information, this study will estimate four (4) proxies for a company. This study will use EVIEWS software to analyse the descriptive, univariate and multivariate regression. 6.4 Control Variables When estimating the relationship between the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast and the corporate governance, this study include two sets of control variables. The first control variable is ownership structure and second control variable is forecast horizons that affect the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. Since this study measure four (4) proxies for corporate governance at the end of prior year, this study will also measure the ownership structure and forecast horizon at the same time. At the end current year, which is the same time this study measure accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. 7.0 Expected Findings This study expected the corporate governance will influence the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast in selected to Malaysian public listed companies. This result will consistent to previous study finds that better corporate governance tends to issue more specific accuracy of the analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast (Ajinkya, Bhoraj, Sengupta, 2005). Byard and Weintrop (2006) find better corporate governance firm contribute to better analyst forecast. To examine the affect on the corporate governance, this study examines few dimensions under corporate governance which effect the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. This study expected the hypotheses conducted under study will result consistent with the previous result. 7.1 Relationship between the independent of Board and Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast This study expects the findings will shows the independent of board has positively associated with the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. Then, this finding is consistent with previous study; the independent board of director has significantly positive relationship with the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006). This outcome will show the situation of selected companies whether the corporate governance practise in the companies contribute to achieve accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. 7.2 Relation between the Size of Board and Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. This study expects the findings will shows the size of board has negatively associated with accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. This is consistent with previous study by Yermack (1996) find larger board reduce the board effectiveness. The size of the recommended board is not discover by previous researcher, however, the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast which measures under dispersion and error will determine the appropriate size for the selected companies. 7.3 Relationship between the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“CEO Dualityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Structure and Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast This study expects the finding will shows the CEO Duality has negatively associated with the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. This is consistent with previous study that finds the presence of CEO Duality in organization has significantly negative relationship with the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006). Most of the Malaysian companies exist the present of CEO Duality structure. Thus, this dimension will clarify how the selected companies practice their corporate governance in the companies. 7.4 Relationship between the Independent of Audit Committee and Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. This study expects the findings will shows the Independent of audit committee has positively associated with the Accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast. This is consistent with the previous study by Klein (2002b) finds that less independent of audit committee cause decreases in earning management. Thus, the result of this finding will provide the effect of independent audit committee role in the selected companies contribute toward the accuracy of analystsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ forecast.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Asylum seekers and refugees as a social problem in the UK Free Essays

string(53) " great focus on asylum seekers in the British media\." Abstract A growing number of asylum seekers in the UK led to the great media focus on this group of foreigners. As the media presented asylum seekers and refugees in an unfavourable light and emphasized the negative consequences of these massive arrivals, the British citizens and politicians started to perceive them as a social problem. In order to address this problem, the British government implemented strict measures aiming to reduce a number of asylum applications in the UK. We will write a custom essay sample on Asylum seekers and refugees as a social problem in the UK or any similar topic only for you Order Now Recently, many academic scholars and organizations underlined that these measures had a very negative impact on the lives of asylum seekers in the UK. The financial support for asylum seekers in the UK is limited to the minimum; they meet difficulties in accessing basic public services such as health care or education; they are not allowed to work during their application process. The evidence show that a growing number of asylum seekers is vulnerable to poverty and destitution; discrimination and social exclusion (Prior et.al., 2008; Williams and Kaye, 2010; Crawley, 2010). Nonetheless, the government seems to undermine these postulates and continues its strict policy towards asylum seekers and refugees. Introduction Historically, the United Kingdom has been characterized by a long tradition of granting asylum to significant number of foreigners. In return, these people have often contributed to the development of the UK. Amongst the best known individuals are Joseph Malin[1] and Michael Marks[2]. As the number of people seeking asylum in the UK has grown rapidly from the early 1990s, the Home Office was not able to cope with this high volume of application and many asylum cases remained unsolved. At the same time, the British media has started to promote the perception of asylum seekers as economic workers whose decisions on where to seek asylum are based on the opportunities for employment and welfare benefits. Thus, the issue of asylum seekers became a top concern of the British policy-makers. (Prior et.al., 2008). Prior to considering the problem of asylum seekers in the UK, it seems to be crucial to define the term asylum seeker and refugee. Following the UNESCO definition, asylum seeker is a person who â€Å"has applied for protection as a refugee and is awaiting determination of his or her status.† (UNESCO, 2011). The reason for seeking protection is a fear of torture or prosecution in origin country. In turn, refugee is a person who has been given protection (UNESCO, 2011). Asylum seeker becomes a refugee when the local immigration authority (or refugee authority) decides that the candidate fits the international definition of refugee. According to the international law, to become a refugee a person needs to meet the criteria for refugee status regulated by the Article 1(A)2 of the 1951 Refugee Convention. Under the following article these are three basic characteristics of refugee. First, a person needs to be outside the country of origin or the country of his previous habitual r esidence. Second, the person is unable to stay safe and protected in that country due to the fear of prosecution or torture. Third, the fear of being prosecuted is based on at least one of the following reasons: race, religion, nationality, membership of the particular social group or political belief (RULAC, 2012). Due to the word count, the term asylum seekers will refer to both asylum seekers and refugees in the following work. The following essay aims to examine why asylum seekers have been perceived as a social problem in the UK as well as to analyse how the government approaches this problem. First, the essay considers the changes in the number of asylum seekers in the UK over the past twenty years. Further, the essay discusses different perspectives of asylum seekers in the social context. Finally, the essay presents the government responses to the problem. Asylum seekers in the UK – statistical approach From the 1990s the UK has been characterized by significant fluctuations in numbers of asylum applications, as demonstrated in Appendix 1. Between 1993 and 2002 the number of asylum applications has increased rapidly from 19,700 to its peak of 103,080 in 2002. In this period of time a number of applications fell slightly in 1996 and 2001, based on year-to-year changes (Institute of Race Relations). The four major countries, from which the asylum applications were addressed to the UK at that time were Iraq, Zimbabwe, Somalia and Afghanistan. Wars, conflicts and political oppression, being the key features of these countries in the 1990s are perceived as major causes of the dramatic increase of the asylum applications to the UK from the mid-1990s (Prior et.al., 2008). From 2002 the number of applications was gradually reduced, reaching 17,916 in 2010 (Refugee Council, 2011). Currently, most of the applicants come from Pakistan, Iran, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan (Refugee Council, 2011). S uch decrease is a consequence of the government policy, strongly restricting the border control in the past decade. Additionally, from 2002 the government continues to reject almost 70% of applications each year. In 2010 68% of applications were refused; 24% of them were granted the refugee status; 7% – Discretionary Leave, while 1% – Humanitarian Protection (Refugee Council, 2012). Nonetheless, the UK continues to be a country with one of the highest numbers of asylum applications in the European Union, next to Sweden, France, Greece and Germany, as presented in Appendix 2 (Eurostat, 2012). According to the report prepared by the Asylum and Destitution Working Group, there are four major pull factors that shape, shaping a decision to apply for asylum in the UK. These are the perception of the UK as a safe, democratic and tolerant country; the ability to speak English or willingness to learn the language; previous connections (including colonialism) between the country of origin or residence and the UK; and having relatives or family in the UK (Prior et.al., 2008). Asylum seekers and refugees as a social problem in the UK A rapidly growing number of asylum applicants in the UK led the great focus on asylum seekers in the British media. You read "Asylum seekers and refugees as a social problem in the UK" in category "Essay examples" The media started to present asylum seekers in an unfavourable light, emphasizing the negative socio-economic effects of the massive inflows of foreigners. For instance, the Daily Express has published 22 negative front page stories on asylum within 31 days period of time in 2003, often using very abusive language. Further, the issue of asylum became a hot topic of the debate between the two main parties during the 2005 general election (Prior et.al., 2008). Exaggeration of the issue and misinformation resulted in spreading the perception of asylum seekers as a thread to the British people in the socio-economic context. Numerous research and surveys conducted amongst the British seem to confirm such approach. For instance, the IAC’s Citizens Speak research from 2008 revealed that most of the respondent perceived the asylum seekers as economic migrants, stealing jobs and welfare benefits from the British. Further, they believed that asylum seekers had a privileged access to housing and public services as well as that there were too many asylum seekers within the country. In turn, the 2003 Citizenship Survey conducted amongst the young British showed that 15% of them cited prejudice against the asylum seekers (Aspinall and Waters, 2010). Also the YouGov survey from 2011 demonstrated that the respondents had the poorest perception of asylum seekers amongst various groups of people, including the categories such as people from ethnic minorities; people from Christian religious groups; or people with disabilities (YouGov, 2011). Additionally, another survey conducted by YouGov in 2008 disclosed that 59% of the respondents argued that asylum seekers were a â€Å"drain on resources† and did not contribute to the economic growth of the UK. Addit ionally, 30% of the respondents saw the reduction in the number of asylum seekers as the most welcome change in the British system (YouGov, 2008). It is important to add that at the same time the British have a highly exaggerated view on the number of the asylum applications in the UK. In YouGov survey from 2007 46% of the respondents estimated this number at 80,000 when additional 31% – at 160,000. In fact, there was actually 23,430 asylum applicants in 2007 (Prior et.al., 2008). While the British media built the image of asylum seekers as a social problem amongst the British citizens, many academic scholars emphasized that asylum seekers are a disadvantaged group and that they often have to face various social problems. In particular, asylum seekers are vulnerable to poverty and destitution (Aspinall and Waters, 2010). They usually arrive to the UK without any financial reserves. Additionally, the financial support offered by the government to asylum seekers constitutes only 70% of Income Support, while they are not permitted to work (Buster, 2010). According to the British Red Cross in 2006 there was approximately 26,000 asylum seekers living in poverty in the UK (Prior et.al., 2008). Asylum seekers also have a limited access to the basic health care services mainly due to the registration problems (i.e. lack of documents proving the address or identity; lack of interpreting services). Similarly, asylum seekers face difficulties in education and training[3] what is mostly caused by limited knowledge of the British education system, poor level of English and high costs (NIACE, 2009). Finally, asylum seekers are the victims of crime rather than offenders. Although there are no official records, the research conducted by Stanley in 2001 revealed that a third of the respondents have experienced racism, harassment or bullying. Also 81% of the asylum seeking women interviewed by the Refugee Strategy Women Group in 2007 admitted that they had experienced racial harassment (Aspinall and Waters, 2010). The policy response to the problem of asylum seekers As asylum seekers started to be perceived as a thread by the British society, the government aimed to reduce their number by implementing new policies and regulations from 1999. The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act tightened the borders control to block new arrivals to the UK by extending visa requirements, pre-entry controls as well as by imposing financial penalties on the companies that transported passengers without permission to enter the UK (Crawley, 2010). The 2002 Immigration and Asylum Act gave greater power to the authorities responsible for application process, including the right to detain the application at any time during the process, not just prior to removal. Additionally, people applying for legal staying in the UK by granting citizenship need to meet English recruitments; take Life in the UK test and attend citizenship ceremony (Guardian, 2009). Further, in 2004 the government established the juxtaposed UK border control in France and Belgium and thus, the UK was abl e to decide whether the foreigners are eligible to enter the UK on the territory of another country. Further in the framework of the New Asylum Model from 2007, the application process became accelerated (new screening process; single case workers), while detentions and deportations became commonly used (Aspinall and Waters, 2010). More importantly, the new legislation affected the asylum seekers’ access to accommodation and welfare. The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act established the financial support for asylum seekers at the level of 70% of Income Support. Additionally, the food vouchers were granted to the asylum seekers instead of the cash. In 2007 the government reduced the support rate for lone parents (66% of Income Support) and for the single adult above the age of 25 (55% of Income Support) (Williams and Kaye, 2010). Despite numerous controversies around the effectiveness of the voucher system, the government still supports such solution. Further, the government implemented the dispersal policies, providing the accommodation and housing to asylum seekers on ‘no-choice’ basis (Crawley, 2010). From 2002 asylum seekers are not permitted to work when their application is considered. There are only a few exceptions from this rule. It is crucial to emphasize that despite the overall fall in asylum applications to the UK and rising concerns on the government policy on asylum, the government continues to implement restrictive measures. These measures often worsen further the living conditions of asylum seekers in the UK (Prior et.al., 2008). Conclusions The UK is one of the main destinations of asylum seekers in Europe. From the 1990s the number of asylum applications rose sharply, reaching its peak in 2002. Asylum seekers started to be perceived as a thread within the British society. Such negative attitudes were mainly caused by the British media, postulating that asylum seekers steal jobs and welfare benefits from the British. Thus, the government aim became to reduce the number of asylum seekers by new legislation. From 1999 the government implemented numerous regulations and policies. Particularly important were the 1999 Immigration Asylum Act, the 2002 Immigration and Asylum Act as well as the 2007 New Asylum Model. As a consequence, the UK border control was tightened, including higher visa requirement and pre-entry control. The asylum process became faster and more effective; the detentions and deportations are commonly used. The government also decided to limit the access to welfare for asylum seekers, seeing it as an impor tant pull factor for high number of applications. To achieve that, various measures have been implemented. Amongst the most important were dispersal policies, withdrawing the rights to work for these asylum seekers whose applications has not been decided; as well as low financial support delivered in kind instead of cash. While the government is proud of reducing in 2010 the number of asylum application to the level from 1993; a number of academic scholars postulate that asylum seekers are not a thread to the British. Asylum seekers do not take the employment opportunities from the British. They have a very limited access to the welfare benefits. They also do not increase the crime level across the country. The scholars underline that asylum seekers are at the risk of poverty, discrimination and social exclusion due to the government policy. Additionally, some international organizations (i.e. Amnesty International; the Refugee Council) argue that the British policy â€Å"may also have the impact of denying the internationally agreed rights of people to seek asylum† (Aspinall and Watters, 2010, p.10). Despite these claims made by the academic scholars and various organizations, the British government seems to continue its strict policy towards asylum seekers and discourage asylum seekers from c hoosing the UK. It indicates that the government still perceives asylum seekers as a social problem rather than notice serious social problems that asylum seekers struggle with.pplications in selected European countries, 2007. References: Aspinall P. and Watters (2010). Refugees and asylum seekers. A review from an equality and human rights perspective. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission. Buster M. (2010). Asylum seekers and refugees. London: Social Inclusion Unit. Crowley (2010). Chance or choice. Understanding why asylum seekers come to the UK. London: Refugee Council. Eurostat (2012). Asylum applications [online] Available from: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/graphDownload.do?tab=graphlanguage=enplugin=1pcode=tps00021 (Accessed on 24.06.2012). Guardian (2009). Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 [online] Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/jan/15/nationality-immigration-asylum-act (Accessed on 24.06.2012) Institute of Race Relations (2012). Asylum Statistics [online] available from: http://www.irr.org.uk/research/statistics/asylum/ (Accessed on 24.06.2012). NIACE (2009). Refugee and asylum seekers in the UK: the challenges of accessing education and employment. Leicester: NIACE. Prior J., McDowell , Morell G., Taruvinga Y., Zanre L., Garner K. and Stranack A. (2008). Asylum Matters: Restoring Trust in the UK Asylum System. London: The Centre for Social Justice. Refugee Council (2011). Asylum Statistics. London: Refugee Council. Refugee Council (2012). Asylum Statistics. London: Refugee Council. RULAC (2012). International Refugee Law [online] Available from: http://www.adh-geneva.ch/RULAC/international_refugee_law.php (Accessed on 24.06.2012). UNESCO (2011). Asylum seeker [online] Available from: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/asylum-seeker/ (Accessed on 24.06.2012). YouGov (2008). Juniper TV Survey Results. London: YouGov. YouGov (2011). Stonewall attitude tables. London: YouGov. Williams R. and Kaye M. (2010). At the end of the line. Restoring the integrity of the UK’s asylum system. London: Amnesty International. How to cite Asylum seekers and refugees as a social problem in the UK, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

E- Business and Opportunities for JB HI-FI Company - myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theE- Business and Opportunities for JB HI-FI Company. Answer: This report reflects how retail stores in Australia are adapting towards online business with a view to increase their overall market share. With the increasing ramification of economic changes and complex business conditions, each and every organization is adapting online business in their business functioning. There are several stores such as Wesfarmers, Woolworths and Mayer who have installed cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning (Van Everdingen, Van Hillegersberg and Waarts, 2010). This system is adopted by them with a view to ease their manual work and make automation in their business functioning. It is considered that with the changing business environments, clients are more clients towards company which uses sophisticated technologies in their value chain activities (Katerattanakul, Lee and Hong, 2014). In this report, JB HI-FI Company has been taken into consideration. It is an Australian electronic goods selling company. This co mpany has installed cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning which will help clients to shop online through its developed dashboards. This cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning will also increase the overall communication between employees to employees and employees to clients. The operating system of JB-HI-FI is completely based on the cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in which all the works are segregated to different departments such as functional, budgetary, matrix project department. It is evaluated that clients needs and demand have been changing throughout the time (Gerow, et al. 2014). Many retails stores such as Wesfarmers, Red Ballon and Dhaka have adopted cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning so that they could take their business online and create effective brand image in clients. Market. This level of technologies ado ptions allows clients to do window shopping effectively by surfing on net (Flamholtz and Randle, 2012). This not only saves clients time but also allow them to broad their choices with millions of products choice. This level of cyber computing enterprises resources planning system has shown a bright future for JB-Hi-FI to increase its overall turnover and effective business functioning. If JB-HI-FI could consistently adopt this level of cyber computing enterprises resources planning system to keep its business online with unique features as per the expectation and clients interest then it will surely result to bright future and effective brand image of company (Flamholtz and Randle, 2012). Now in the end, it could be inferred that this level of cyber computing enterprises resources planning system will bring more simplicity and effective business functioning for retails stores in Australia. However, innovation and creation of technologies will determine the vulnerability of online business of retail stores throughout the time. However, with the present level of demand and clients inclinations, if retails stores wants to create effective brand image and increase their turnover then adoption of online business is very much required part of business. Therefore, it could be inferred that retails stores and their online business has effective and positive future. References Flamholtz, E.G. and Randle, Y., 2012. Corporate culture, business models, competitive advantage, strategic assets and the bottom line: Theoretical and measurement issues.Journal of Human Resource Costing Accounting,16(2), pp.76-94. Gerow, J.E., Grover, V., Thatcher, J.B. and Roth, P.L., 2014. Looking toward the future of IT-business strategic alignment through the past: A meta-analysis.Mis Quarterly,38(4), pp.1059-1085. Katerattanakul, P., J. Lee, J. and Hong, S., 2014. Effect of business characteristics and ERP implementation on business outcomes: An exploratory study of Korean manufacturing firms.Management Research Review,37(2), pp.186-206. Van Everdingen, Y., Van Hillegersberg, J. and Waarts, E., 2010. Enterprise resource planning: ERP adoption by European midsize companies.Communications of the ACM,43(4), pp.27-31.

Friday, March 6, 2020

How to Format a Book 7 Money-Sucking Book Format Mistakes to Avoid

How to Format a Book 7 Money-Sucking Book Format Mistakes to Avoid How to Format a Book: 7 Money-Sucking Book Format Mistakes to Avoid Self-publishinghas changed everything.Before, you were at the mercy of your publisher on how your book format looked, but today, you have control over this entire process.In fact, you have the final say over everything in your finished manuscript is displayed. Therefore, knowing the proper book format you need is crucial. And with great power comes great responsibility.If youre not careful, you may end up with a sloppy and messy manuscript that an editor will refuse to work on until you tidy it up.Or worse, your audience will slam your book with negative reviews because you published it riddled with errors.An unprofessionallooking book will not only distract readers, it will harm your brand and label you as an amateur, affecting the sales of future books as wellas your current one.Your completed self-published book should convey professionalism in all aspects including with its book format.7 Money-Sucking Book Format MistakesThere are over a hundred things that can go wrong with you r book formatting, and if we wrote about all of them youd be reading from sun-up till sun-down. But fear not!From our experience, most authors make the same mistakes when with their book format.In this article, you’re going to learn what the most common book formatting errors and how to avoid them. By avoiding these mistakes, not only will you have a professional looking manuscript, but youll make the process of designing your book to publish on Amazons Kindle or in print via CreateSpace a lot easier.If you have a completed manuscript with botched book formatting on your hands, this article will teach you how to fix it using Microsoft Word.(A quick note: its possible to do many of the fixes in Google Docs, however, Word has a more comprehensive set of features, so its better to use that when formatting your complete manuscript.)NOTE: We cover everything in this blog post and much more about the writing, marketing, and publishing process in our VIP Self-Publishing Program. Lea rn more about it here#1 Avoid Hard Indents in Your Book FormatA hard indent is when paragraph indentations are created by manual use of the keyboard’s Tab key.Many of us learned how to type using the Tab key to create an indent at the start of each paragraph, so this can be a tough habit to break.When it comes to book formatting, use of the Tab key is a no-no, because it results in an indent that’s far larger than you need.With fiction book formatting, you want to have just a small indent at the start of each paragraph. If your book is non-fiction, generally speaking, you want to use block paragraphs rather than indents, unless your book is a memoir or historical fiction. (More on that in tip #2.) If your book is fiction, you may be wondering how to create paragraphs without the Tab key. The fix is simple: In MS Word, set the Paragraph settings to automatically create indentations for the first line in each paragraph.This simple auto fix will make creating your book fo rmat way easier. In Word 2016, on both Mac Windows, to get to Paragraph settings, click the Paragraphdialog box launcher on the Homeor Layouttab. Then on the Indents and Spacingtab, go to the box under Special and click on First line. You can change the size of the indent using the box to the right. If you’re wondering how big to make your indents, my advice is to pull your favorite book off the shelf, open it up, and take a peek. How big are the paragraph indents?Experiment with making yours larger or smaller, printing out the page, and comparing them to the book in your hand.But what if your 535-page tome has already been drafted, using the dreaded Tab key for each and every paragraph? No need to set fire to your laptop!Here’s what to do to clean it up:Use Find and Replace (Ctrl+H or Control+H or here’s how to find it in Word 2016 on Macand on Windows.)Enter ^t in the Find (This will help you find every â€Å"Tab† in the document.)Leave the Replace fi eld blank.Hit Replace All.Going forward, set your Paragraph settings so that you don’t have to remove hard indents again. Presto!You now have a much prettier, easier-to-convert document through the magic of technology that will make your book format much more professional-looking.#2 Indentation vs. Block ParagraphsWorks of non-fiction today typically don’t use indentation, except for some notable exceptions we will discuss momentarily. Rather, a popular book format for modern non-fiction is the block paragraph.What’s a block paragraph? A block paragraph doesn’t have indentation on the opening line, but instead uses a horizontal line of white space beneath each paragraph. This helps to delineate the separation between paragraphs. For instance, I used block paragraphs in my latest bookPublished., which looks like this:The reasoning behind whether you should use indentation vs. block paragraphs is this: in works where one thought should flow smoothly into t he next, such as in a novel, paragraph indentations are used with no line spacing between paragraphs.But in books where complicated information is being consumed, having a single line space between paragraphs aids the brain in processing one piece of information before moving on to the next.Here is an example from a fiction novel, The Saviors Champion by full-time, self-published author Jenna Moreci of what it looks like to use indents instead of block paragraphs:An exception to the block paragraph for non-fiction/indents for fiction guideline:non-fiction narratives,such as a memoiror historical fiction, should use the same indent style described above in tip #1.In non-fiction works where some information should flow, and other sections require more brain power to comprehend, some authors decide to mix formatting types and use indentation where appropriate and block paragraphs where useful.But in general, to avoid confusing the reader and to make your book look uniform, clean, and a s if you didn’t make a book formatting error, it’s best to choose one style or the other and stick with it throughout your book.However, if you insist on getting crazy and mixing it up, knowing how andwhen to use block paragraphsversus when to indent results in a more professional manuscript.#3 Avoid Double Spaces After PeriodsHere’s the truth: Two spaces after a period iswrong. Period. (Ha!) Just as with the good old-fashioned Tab key indent, two spaces after a period may have been the norm back when you were learning to type.This is because, with typewriters, characters were all the same width, so the two-space rule allowed for greater readability. With modern computer fonts, the characters all fit closer together in a proportional fashion, thereby eradicating the need for that one additional space.Most major style guides- including theChicago Manual of Style, which is used by traditional publishers- now formally recognize the more modern single-space rule.Fr om an aesthetics angle, one space looks neater, which your readers’ eyes will appreciate. Before you convert your manuscript, change all double spaces to single spaces. The result will be a better formatted, stylistically correct book.You’re going to use that super handy â€Å"Find and Replace† function again:Enter two spaces in the Find (This will help you find every double space in the document.)Enter a single space into the Replace field.Hit Replace All.Voila! Like magic.#4 Be Cautious with HyphensImproper hyphenation is a common error that may be harder to stay on top of because the rules of hyphenation differ depending on the grammatical situation.So when it comes to your book format, youll have to do some research.Generally, keep these three rules in mind while you write so youll have to do less work when its time for book formatting:Two or more words that, together, function as an adjective are joined with a hyphen. For example, dark-pink skirt or two-wa y street.Two words or more that form a number are joined with a hyphen. For example, twenty-one.Compound words, which are two words that are joined together to make a single word, donotrequire a hyphen. For example, toothbrush or starfish.Two or more separate words that are used as a single word or idea. For example, action-grabbing, top-notch, or larger-than-life.When in doubt, look it up! For a more detailed treatment of the hyphen, here is an important source to consider:Elements of Style.#5 Know When to Use Quotes vs. an ApostropheFew things scream â€Å"new writer† like a book formatted with punctuation errors. You want to make sure you’re usingquotes and apostrophescorrectly so you don’t lose credibility with your readers.When to use quotes in your book format:When you’re quoting someone, use quotes! This means either a person is speaking- like in fiction- or you are borrowing material verbatim from another source, like in non-fiction.Use of quotes is rarely needed for common expressions.Ironic terms can be set off in quotes.Overuse of quotes can get annoying, so be judicious in their application.When to use apostrophes:Use an apostrophe for possessive form (except the word its.) For example: The cat’s toys are blue.Use an apostrophe for contractions, such as it is. For example: The cat’s playing with its toys. It’s a happy cat.Avoid using an apostrophe for plural forms. For example: Five cats ran past her.Again, the rules can be complicated, such as when to use an apostrophe when dealing with an acronym, so when in doubt,look it up.#6 Be Careful When Using the Enter KeyThere are many times in your book youll want to go to a new page or to create a blank page.This is simple right? Hit enter a few times, and presto, youve got a new page.Wrong.Using paragraph breaks, or hitting enter to create a new page can createmanyproblems when it comes to getting your manuscript ready to publish.For instance, you or y our book designer will need to change your page size or page setup according to the book size and style youve chosen. Using paragraph breaks will create extra space where none is needed and will change the page layouts of your book, making your book look ugly.If youre wondering why after you change your paper size, your chapter headings are no longer at the top of the page, but halfway down, it was because of your liberal use of paragraph breaks.Instead, use the page break function. This instantly creates a new page, and it remains a new page even when youve changed the page size, page layout, or added more content above. On Microsoft Word, this can be done by pressing Ctrl+Enter (Windows) or Cmd+Enter (Mac).You can also find it in the ribbon in Word. Google Docs also has this feature. In Word 2016 go to Insert Page Break In Google Docs go to Insert Break Page Break#7 Use the Styles Feature Instead of Formatting YourselfStop formatting your chapter titles yourself. Many writers indicate a title or subtitle by simply changing the font size and changing the font from the default font (ah,Times New Roman, how we miss you) and thinking their job is done.This makes navigating and formatting your book a pain.What you want to do is use MSWords Styles feature. Google Docs also has this feature. In Word 2016, you can find the Styles section under the Home tab on both Mac Windows.In Google Docs the styles section can be found by clicking the box between the zoom level and the font type.When creating a new chapter, highlight the chapter heading, and then make it a header by applying the relevant style. If its the main heading make it Heading 1, if its a subtitle make it Heading 2, etc.This has the added benefit of allowing you to easily automatically create a table of contents page, or to navigate through your 30,000-word manuscript with Words navigation pane, while also making your book format look professional.You Need a Proper Book FormatWithout question you want your book to stand out because of its invaluable content, stunning tone of voice, and laser targeted towards your audience.However, don’t let your book formatting or grammatical errors get in the way of your book’s success. If youve written your book, and are ready to get it published, follow the guide you just read to make sure your manuscript isnt full of errors.For tips on how to format your book for Kindle, its best to follow Amazons comprehensive guideon the matter. It will help you design your title page on a different first page, your copyright page, trimming to the correct paper size, and the million other things you need to do to get your book ready for print.Your Next StepsThirty years ago, it would have been impossible to publish a book yourself. Today you have all the tools you need to produce a flawless manuscript.Take the time to review your book- and hire an editorand a book designer- to make sure your book formatting is perfectly professional.If youre ready to polish your book format and move on in the publishing process, heres what you can do next.#1 Join your free training!Its not enough to put together a pretty book. You also have to know what to do once youre done and how to go about making itsell! Thats where we come in.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Fashion Police - Flint Cracks Down on Sagging Essay

Fashion Police - Flint Cracks Down on Sagging - Essay Example Flint The essay "Fashion Police - Flint Cracks Down on Sagging" gives a detailed information about photographies of fashion and provides a critique on the trends in them. The pants are not being used for the purpose that they were made for. As for the third picture, in which not only underwear is showing but so is the butt, the image is offensive, which is to say that the male the image is depicting is offensive. Private parts of the body should be covered up and not on display for everyone to see. Furthermore, both the pants and the underwear no longer serve their purpose of keeping those areas covered up. As for the comments based on each picture, stating that the picture in which the pants sag but still remain above the butt, are correct. At least in this first image the male is merely sagging his pants, showing a little bit of underwear, which is something that can happen to someone who is not even wearing saggy pants. Though I disagree that the second image where the male has hi s pants below the butt is considered disorderly conduct. He is showing much more of himself than he needs to be, and therefore this should be considered indecent exposure, just as the third image is considered. After reading the article that accompanies the photograph, the purpose behind the â€Å"criminal offense† system of sagging pants seems almost as ridiculous as the sagging pants themselves. Arresting people simply because their pants sag a little too low seems like a cheap way for a police officer.