Wednesday, August 26, 2020
The huge rest - Essay Example This subject is continued further by areas attached to Marlowe. From his eyes, we are offered a brief look at his old place of business with its iron work and wood insides. Here, there was show of fabulousness or a sparkle of life that battled to exist despite a clearly kicking the bucket city. At that point, there were additionally the perceptions from different characters, affirmed by MarloweÃ¢â¬â¢s consent and non-verbal communication. In his meeting with the general, for instance, the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s initial introduction of Marlowe was that of Ã¢â¬Å"a man with blood on his veins.Ã¢â¬ (p. 7) after a short time, Mrs. Regan would state to MarloweÃ¢â¬â¢s face that he is an attractive man and Marlowe recognized it with a snort. Chandler adequately assembled his protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s character from the get-go in the story. The protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation Ã¢â¬ a came up short on work Ã¢â¬ seemed well and good why the style of the story was what it was, basic, clear yet distinctive in portraying the lavishness, extravagance and defilement of the period. After, all, it was from MarloweÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes that the peruser learn of the story. There are various focuses wherein the portrayal looked like fresh, staccato rhythms showing MarloweÃ¢â¬â¢s character. This was really astounding, in any case, particularly when one considers that Chandler is British and the stories that quickly gone before his work where solidly in the convention of expound and practically flower exposition. In a scene from the book, there was a case when Harry Jones was describing a story declaration about Mr. Canino, Eddie Mars and the secretive Mona Mars. A while later, when he was distant from everyone else in his office, Marlowe was cited as saying: I went upstairs again and sat in my seat contemplating Harry Jones and his story. It appeared to be excessively pat. It had the stark effortlessness of fiction instead of the tangled woof of fact.Ã¢â¬ (p. 115) Here, Chandler plainly communicated his perspective on fiction or possibly its
Posted by Dessie Seiler at 4:53 AM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
What exactly degree does fruitful work environment learning rely upon the social setting of the working environment condition - Essay Example This permits the association to arrive at the potential development and achievement that the association dreams for. Be that as it may, to change only a negligible dream into the real world, the association must actualize learning forms that would alter the course of the association. This adjustment in heading could change the eventual fate of the association and its representatives. As working environment learning is making maintainable new information, it is considered as a venture by the association for their most significant resources which is the workforce. The workforce could without any assistance change the eventual fate of the association, all they need is a preparation and advancement program yet a program inside the limits of hierarchical culture. An association is a blend of assorted culture and representatives. The main component that joins these various representatives from various race, religion and beginning is the hierarchical culture. With the progression of time, a ssociations have become progressively social various and they have recruited workers having a place from various societies and geographic areas. Despite the fact that, this has been useful for the association as it has permitted association to have various reasoning and greater innovativeness and better gaining from various cultures.... Alongside that, the examination has featured a portion of the significant measurements that would incorporate the meaning of working environment learning, social setting of working environment condition and in conclusion the effect of social setting on fruitful work environment learning. A concise end is additionally included to sum up and close all the significant discoveries of this examination. Fruitful working environment learning Workplace learning is a procedure that tends to the necessities and premiums of the representatives. This learning procedure empowers the representative to react to the changing condition and to contribute in expanding the effectiveness and efficiency of the worker (Lai, and Lo, 2008). This learning procedure at last aides in meeting the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s individual and profession advancement needs inside the association (Chen, Bian, and Hom, 2005). Learning at work permits the association to create various capacities and aptitudes and therefore it is b etter ready to accomplish upper hand (Hamlin, and Stewart, 2011). Learning at work occurs through the every day working acts of the laborers and the greatest impact in this learning procedure is simply the work. A procedure that tends to the necessities and interests of the representative aides in lessening the non-appearance rate, turnover rate, work disappointment and every one of those elements that diminish the ideal execution to accomplish the hierarchical objectives. Fruitful working environment learning gives a chance to the representatives of the association to create or improve their aptitudes that would empower them to get the most ideal results for the business (Clarke, 2005). Workers are commendable speculations for associations as these representatives are depended vigorously upon for the achievement and advancement of the association. Representatives are viewed as the most important resource inside
Posted by Dessie Seiler at 7:01 AM
Friday, August 14, 2020
How to Write a Methodology Section for Case Study A Guide to Writing a Case Study Research Methodology Case study methodology is very popular as a research method in different fields of science: psychology, sociology, education, anthropology, law, social work, clinical science, political science, business, and administrative science. Thatâs why college students who take classes in those sciences are often assigned to write case studies. Writing a case study is a challenging and time-consuming process. You have to design a good case study, gather relevant data and later, present your data and analyze them fairly. And your final goal is to write a compelling cases study report which should include the following sections: Abstract Introduction Literature review Methods and procedures Results/Findings Discussion/Conclusion Many students face problems when writing a report because they do not know how to write a methodology section for a case study. Here is an easy guide that will help do it properly. Typically, the methodology section of a case study should include information about research design, research site, participants, methods of collecting data, analyzing the evidence, research steps, and limitations. Letâs discuss the most important data. Research design A research design for a case study is a logical plan which guides the researcher in the process of collecting data, analyzing and interpreting his/her observations. A research design has five important components: the case studyâs research question the studyâs propositions if there are any the studyâs units of analysis techniques for the logic linking of the data to the proposition, for example, explanation building, pattern matching, time-series analysis, cross-case synthesis, logic models the criteria for interpreting the case studyâs findings Methods of collecting data The most common methods of collecting data for cases studies are the following: Direct observation can be developed as an essential part of a case study protocol or can be conducted through a field visit. Interviews can be of three types: in-depth interviews, focused interviews, and formal survey interviews. Participant-observation is a special mode of conducting an observation when the researcher is not merely a passive observer. Physical or cultural artifacts such as a work of art, a technological device, tool or instrument may be collected and observed as a part of any case study but most commonly they are used during anthropological research. Here are three key principles of collecting case study evidence: Using multiple sources of evidence allows a researcher to address a broader range of issues Creating a case study database in the form of case study notes, cases study documents, tables, and narratives can increase the reliability of any case study. Maintaining a chain of evidence allows other people trace back the steps of the investigation in either direction. Analyzing the data Analyzing the evidence depends on the type of data collected in an empirical study. Quantitative data (numbers and classes) are analyzed using statistics. Qualitative data (words, descriptions, diagrams, pictures) are analyzed using such techniques as categorization and sorting. Case studies are mostly based on qualitative data, however, sometimes, mixed methods are used. Case study research process A case study research process can be described in five major steps: Case study design â" defining the objectives and planning the case study Preparation for data collection â" defining procedures and protocols for collecting data Collecting evidence on the case you are investigating Analyzing the collected data Writing a case study report You can apply these steps for any case study, for example, case study methodology in education or dissertation case study methodology. More free time? Better grade? Click on this button nowOrder Now What is Methodology Case Study Approach? There are different definitions of a case study but most researchers agree that it is an empirical method which focuses on investigating contemporary phenomena in their context. Case study methodology in research generates context-dependent knowledge of accounts of practice which should be explored and studied analytically. When using a case study of research methodology, scientists select several examples of a certain phenomenon to be studied and then deeply investigate the characteristics of those examples (cases). Applying comparative case study methodology, the researchers examine, compare and contrast a relatively small number of cases, and determine the significant features of the phenomenon. Their purpose is to understand how the phenomenon varies under different circumstances. Now when you have a basic understanding of how to write a case study methodology, we can define four characteristics of a well-written case study. An exemplary case study must be significant. It must be complete and based on the convincing relevant evidence. The case study must represent alternative perspectives. The case study report must be written in an engaging manner. As you see, the standards are rather high. If you find that all these issues are too complicated for you to complete your report on your own, you can easily get professional help if you hire a qualified writer on our custom paper writing service. We have a huge staff of experienced writers in different fields of knowledge so we can provide you with a perfect model case study report in practically all college courses. You can be absolutely sure that our qualified writers will create custom case studies that meet the highest standards.
Posted by Dessie Seiler at 12:24 PM
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Cathedral There are many themes in the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Cathedral,Ã¢â¬ some of them include the Cathedral itself and the difference between looking at something and really seeing something. Throughout the short story you see how people have different personalities and see how fast a person can change. The Cathedral and the audiotapes mean much more to both main characters than just an object or a building. In the beginning of the story the narrator is completely disgusted at the thought of a blind man being in his house because of all the false things heÃ¢â¬â¢s heard about people who canÃ¢â¬â¢t see. Peoples perceptions change rapidly once they get to know someone, and in this case when the narrator got to know Robert the blind man, he realized that heÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This short story helps make people understand that there is always more to the world than you know and there is always more to learn. Imagine if a complete stranger came into your life and changed all your views on the world and had you rethink the way youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been living your entire life. You, too, would want to keep your eyes closed. This theme is important because people go their entire lives looking but not really seeing. In the beginning of the story, the blind man asks to see the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s face, Ã¢â¬Å"(blind peoples) sense of touch is no keener than the average person s, but the more frequent use of touch enables them to more quickly and efficiently analyze the things they touchÃ¢â¬ (Bowles). As humans, we overlook the small things and concentrate on the big and in doing so, we fail to realize that the little things are sometimes the hugely important factors in life. This can also go along with not judging people right away; do not judge a book by itÃ¢â¬â¢s cover. Nowhere in the story does it describe how the narrator felt after the blind man drew a Cathedral with him, but you can tell by the words he used that he had never felt more alive. He felt like he was in an empty world and opening his eyes would only remind him of the nothingness heÃ¢â¬â¢s been living. The narrator says many things that makes it obvious that he is fully capable or looking but that he does not see any solution to fixing his life. He is leading a boring life he hates with no communicationShow MoreRelatedCathedral684 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCathedral It is an ongoing problem that people are narrow-minded and have preconceptions. It does no one good and is an obstacle in your everyday life. By closing your eyes, the other senses, like feeling, hearing and smelling, tune in and take over. A lot can be learned from these senses and new truths can be unrevealed. In the short story Cathedral, the main character stops his prejudices and sees a new truth. The short story Cathedral takes place in the 1990s in a married coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s house inRead MoreThe Cathedral Of Canterbury Cathedral1209 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe word Cathedral is a Latin word for chair Ã¢â¬Å"CathedraÃ¢â¬ which was taken from the Greek Ã¢â¬ËKathedraÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning seat. The Canterbury Cathedral is located in England, United Kingdom. The Cathedral is one of the most famous and oldest Christian structures in England. 597 AD was the founding of Canterbury Cathedral. The cathedralÃ¢â¬â¢s physical context is located in a sprawl area meaning there is low density residential, there are many other attractions around such as the theatre,hotel and museum. Saint AugustineRead MoreAnalysis Of Cathedral By Raymond Carver1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA New Perspective Everyone at one point has judged a book by its cover. In the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ , Raymond Carver creates a narrator who bases off ideas and assumptions about blind people from movies. The narrator has never interacted with a blind person before the day where his wife invites her friend, who is named Robert, to stay. The narrator and Robert have never met, but the narrator has a strong dislike towards Robert before meeting. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s closed-mindedness and misconceptionsRead MoreCathedral As A Central Catholic Church1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCathedral is a central Catholic church. Differences between cathedrals and churches are that cathedrals are the seat of the bishop and a centre of worship and mission. (The Association of English Cathedrals) Because it s a central of Catholic churches, all the Catholic churches around a cathedral receives order and worship services from it. Cathedrals are known for central position in Catholic, but what we have to fo cus is beauty of their art of structures and art of symbolism. There are many CatholicRead MoreEssay on The Cathedral by Raymond Carver980 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCathedral is a short story ultimately about enlightment, finding something more meaningful and deeper with in one self. Although from an observing point of view nothing more in the story happens then a blind man assisting the narrator in drawing a cathedral. Although as known, the narrators experience radically differs from what is actually observed. He is enlightened and opened up to a new world of vision and imagination. This brief experience will have a life long effect on him. The reasonRead MoreT.S.Eliot Murder in the Cathedral1975 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesT.S. Eliots Murder in the Cathedral tells the story of Thomas Beckett, a man who reigned as Archbishop of Canterbury during the 12th century in England until his death in 1170. In order to tell Becketts story, Eliot creates a series of equally interesting characters that each play a crucial role thought the play. The most unique rolefound within the play is the Women ofCanterbury, or the Chorus. Throughout the piece, the Chorus delivers seven choral odes. These choral odes, when looked at as aRead MoreLooking Beyond the Surface at Raymond Carvers Cathedral660 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIt seems in life that we often look at things without really seeing them. Raymond Carver demonstrates in Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ that looking is associated to physical vision, but seeing involves a deeper level of commitment. The author is making the point when you put yourself into someone elses shoes and allow yourself to see things the way they see them, it can be the most rewarding and eye opening experience. During the exposition, the narrator shows that he has no problems with eyesight and he is capableRead MoreDurham Cathedral Essay854 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDurham Cathedral Durham Cathedral is one of the oldest examples of Romanesque architecture present in England today. Although the cathedral was completed in the early 12th century there are signs of Gothic architecture present due to the close relation of Romanesque and Gothic styles. In Robert Scotts book The Gothic Enterprise he discusses how the early Gothic style pulled heavily from the Romanesque style of architecture and built upon its basic themes. Durham Cathedrals extensive historyRead MoreThe Canterbury Cathedral Essay2561 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThe Canterbury Cathedral For at least fourteen hundred years the worship of God has been offered on the site of this Cathedral, and through the prayers of the Church his power and grace have shaped human lives. Ever since the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket in the Cathedral in 1170, Canterbury has attracted thousands of pilgrims. This tradition continues to this day, and a large team of Welcomers, Guides, Cathedral Assistants and Chaplains are there to give all visitors a warm welcomeRead MoreAnalysis Milan Cathedral, Italy Essay751 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe middle of Milan, Italy in the Piazzo del Duomo is Milan Cathedral, the largest Gothic cathedral and the second largest Catholic cathedral in the world. The exterior and interior appearances are aw-inspiring, commanding respect in our modern day time period and long ago during the time periods in which the Milan Cathedral was constructed. The cathedral also earned respect by being the center for community functions. The Milan Cathedral has outer height of 215 ft and a maximum width of 302 ft allowing
Posted by Dessie Seiler at 1:10 AM
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 3837 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Good corporate governance is the key for the business organization success. Corporate governance explained the rules of governing: board structure, managersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ and boardsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ incentive compensation, decision right by the board and the CEO, succession of the board and CEO, shareholder voting, debt/equity finance, disclosure concerning takeover and etc. Thus, the corporate governance can be defined as a set how the institutional arrange and effect the corporate decision making (Ball, 1998). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Introduction Background of the Study" essay for you Create order Due to the poor corporate governance, the Asian 1997/98 crisis has affected many companies including the Government Link Companies (GLC) around the region because of the poor corporate governance practices which reflected the corporate decision making. Previous researchers have found poor corporate governance consists of over-leveraging (Fraser, D.R, C.Derasid, 2006); lacks of accountability, transparency and financial disclosure (Mitton, 2002) have influences to the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s failure. Furthermore, in the United States, many latest financial reporting scandals have been caused by the poor corporate governance which has oversight during the financial reporting process (Agrawal Chadha, 2005). Most of the corporate governance failures cases recorded in Malaysia are related to billing scheme fraud, financial statement fraud, employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ fraud and misappropriation of assets (Haron, 2006). Economic crime actual statistic 2007 showed Asset misappropriation (36%), Corruption and bribery (24%), Accounting Fraud (15%), Money Laundering (5%), IP infringement (9%) and others (7%) cases ( PwC Alert Issue No.72, 2007). Thus, based on the PwC Alert statistic explained that the poor corporate governance caused for the economic crime. This statistical information has motivates this study to examine further the impact on the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast which influence by the corporate governance. 2.0 Problem Statement Accuracy of the analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast depends on many factors that derive to achieve the accuracy of earning. AnalystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ are the information available in the capital market that links the financial and non-financial information to estimate the earnings (Schipper, 1991). The accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast also linkages to the corporate governance. Previous study shows better corporate governance tends to issue more specific accuracy of the analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast (Ajinkya, Bhoraj, Sengupta, 2005). Byard and Weintrop (2006) find better corporate governance firm contribute to better analyst forecast. The prior studies show the relationship between the corporate governance has influence the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. There are underlying theories such as agency cost where describe the problem between the principal and agent which the accounting asymmetric information exits between the parties. In this study , the researchers believe corporate governance is to reduce information asymmetric. This study chooses the agency theory because ownership structure is use as one of the control variable where the researcher believes the selected companies will have separation between ownership and management which will cause to agency problem. Previous study find managers have more on long term interest rather than the interest of shareholder (Winter, 1999). The problem arises between the manager and shareholder affected the positive role of corporate governance practised in the company. Furthermore, the revised of Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance (MCCG) in October 2007 has enhanced the corporate governance practised in the several aspects. The changes in MCCG have motivated this study to find the influence of MCCG before the revised and after the revised toward the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast in public listed companies. This study will examine the factors of corporate governance that influence the dispersion and error of accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. Thus, the problem statement for this study is to examine the dispersion and error of accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast influence by the corporate governance structure. 2.1 Research Questions 1. What is the effect of corporate governance to the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast? 2. How the corporate governance factors influence the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast? 3. What are the effects of MCCG revised toward the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast? 2.2 Research Objectives Corporate governance reduces the accounting information asymmetric between a company and investors. 2. Board of director efficient role in corporate governance influence the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. 3. The revised MCCG do enhance the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. 3.0 Significance of the Study. The accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast is an important key to enhance the investors confident. The confident levels of investors are depending on the market demand of an organisation which measure by using the available informationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s in the public to forecast the company performance. This study will use corporate governance variables such as the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCEO Duality Structure, the independent of the Board, The size of the Board and The Governance Role of Audit Committees. Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast will act as a proxy for the quality of the firmsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ efficiency and effectiveness to achieve the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. Furthermore, to relate between the analystÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"s forecast accuracy and firmsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ governance, this study includes two set of control variable such as firmsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ ownership structure and forecast horizon that affects the analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢ â ¢ forecast accuracy (Byard, Li, Wintrop, 2006). Previous study finds that poor corporate governance tends to reduce the confident level of investors (Noordin, 1999). Prior researchers find poor corporate governance leads to mistake in reporting the financial progress (Agrawal Chadha, 2005). Based in many empirical studies, this study will contribute to enhance the investor confident level and identifies which corporate governance variables are contributes and influence to achieve the accuracy of forecast analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. Furthermore, the revised in Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance in 2007 will impact to the company existing corporate governance. Thus, this study will examine the effect of prior and after effects on corporate governance to the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. 4.0 Literature Review Corporate governance can be defined as a set on how the institutional arrangement can affect the corporate decision making (Ball, 1998). Corporate governance describes the rules of governing: board structure, managersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ and boardsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ incentive compensation, right decision made by the board and the CEO, succession of the board and CEO, shareholder voting, debt/equity finance, disclosure concerning takeover and etc (Verhoven, 1998). While another researcher define corporate governance as whole control systems where a company is directed and controlled with the basic focus toward the role of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âgovernorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? of the company which is the board of directors (Haron, 2006). The corporate governance will determine how well the organization performance and contribute for good decision making when confronted with the uncertainty issues. The current uncertainty economics condition has weakened many companies around the world because of poor corporate governance. The 1997/98 Asian financial crisis has revealed that lack of corporate governance practices in Malaysia has contributed to the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s failure during the crisis (Wahab, C.Y.How, Verhoeven, 2007). Poor corporate governance leads to mistake in reporting the financial progress (Agrawal Chadha, 2005). Poor corporate governance that identify by previous researchers are such as over-leveraging (Fraser, D.R, C.Derasid, 2006); lack of accountability, transparency and financial disclosure (Mitton, 2002) has influence to the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s failure. Other researchers find during the crisis, variables under the corporate governance are the most explained proportion of the excha nge rate variation, performance of stock market and the other economic variables (Johnson, Boone, Breach, Friedman, 2000). Based on the previous studies, this study is interested to explore about the corporate governance effects on the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast in public listed companies in Bursa Malaysia. The previous researchers find better corporate governance firm contribute to better accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast ( (Byard, Li, Weintrop, 2006). Factors that influencing the good corporate governance are: (i) quality board of directors, (ii) quality audit committee, (iii) effective internal audit function, (iv) quality internal control system in place and (v) independent external auditors (Haron, 2006). In this study, the researcher will examine the corporate governance variables such as the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCEO Duality Structure, the independent of the Board, The size of the Board and The Independent Director of Audit Committees. Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast will act as a proxy for quality of the firmsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ efficiency and effectiv eness to achieve the accuracy of the analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. Furthermore, to relate between the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast and firmsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ corporate governance, this study includes two set of control variable such as firmsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ ownership structure and forecast horizon that affects the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast (Byard, Li, Wintrop, 2006). 4.1 Corporate Governance 4.1.1 The Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCEO DualityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? structure Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCEO DualityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? exists when an organization has the person hold the CEO position and at the same time is a chairman of Board of Director in the company. The duality or multiple positions such as chairman and board of director are common practiced among the listed firm in Malaysia (Haron, 2006). Previous researchers find company CEOÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s that acting dual role do have lesser shareholder return (Rechner D.R.Dalton, 1989). However, other researchers find the duality role of a CEO can lead to positive relationship to performance under certain industry condition such as resource scarcity or high complexity and the effect on other economic conditions is negative (Donaldson, 1991). This mean the duality role has negative relationship with the return except under the condition of resources scarcity or high complexity. Another study also finds the presence of CEO Duality in organization has significantly negative relationship with the accuracy of analysts Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006). 4.1.2 The Independent Board of Directors Independent Board of Director who is does not hold any executive position in the organization. The independent directors are responsible to make independent judgments in strategy, performance, resources, key appointment and etc. Thus, the independent board of directors must free from any relationship with the management that will bias during the judgment exercise. Previous study shows, majority number of independent board of director during the tenders offered to biddersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ results zero stock price return (Byrd Hickman., 1992). While the bidders without the independent board suffer statistically loses on 1.8 percent on average (Leng Chang, 2004). Previous study also find the relationship between the proportion of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âinside directorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? and bidder stock price return is significantly negative (You, R. Caves, Henry, 1986). The finding shows that organization that have more independent directors tend to be more profitable compare to the organizatio n that has lesser independent directors. Furthermore, the additional of outside directors has pushed the stock price increase on average by 0.2 percent (Rosenstein Wyatt, 1990). The independent board of director has significantly positive relationship with the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006) 4.1.3 Board of Director Size. Board director size is referring to the total number of director exist in the organization. Previous researcher used the agency theory and assumed that larger board will consists of various education background, industrial background, and also skills (Haron, 2006). The quality of an organization to monitor and decision making are depending on the board of directorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ size which will determine the organization performance. Thus, what size whether large or small board of directors? The previous study find the board of directorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ size should be small because small size will lead the board function effectively (Smale, Patricoft, D.Marcus, D.W.Johnson, 1995). However, the size of the organization also determines the size of the boards: larger the company has larger the number of boards. The consequences of larger board of directors are reduce the ability of board to control CEO (Lipton J.Lorsh, 1992) and slower the decision making (Kole K.Lehn, 1997). P rior studies also do not specified recommended the number of directors but the companies should allow the active boards which have ability to make effective decision and performing their function. 4.1.4 The Independent Director of Audit Committees Audit committee is a committee formally appointed by full board and responsible to consider and report on matters comprised of financial reporting and governance procedures and the organization audit and other matters which referred by the board (Kulansingam, 2002). Several study find presence of an audit committee is associated with lesser incidences of error in financial reporting. For example, previous researcher find organization that has audit committee would likely more reliable financial reporting such as absence of material errors, irregularities and illegal act (Kulansingam, 2002). Klein ( 2002) finds negative relationship between the audit committee and management earning. However, previous study found that more independent audit committee does not improve the quality of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast accuracy (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006). 4.2 Control Variables 4.2.1 Ownership Structure Ownership structure is also known as Board of director ownership where it works as direct incentives to the manager who has the favour to act like the shareholdersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ interest. (Weishbach, 1988). The ownership structure is one of the major corporate governance mechanisms that help to monitor the agency problem (Jensen Meckling, 1976). Control the agency problem in organization able to enhance the firmsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ wealth (McConnell Servaes, 1990). Another researcher find that reduce of agency problem is link to the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast (Hope, 2003). Thus, ownership structures where the top manager holds the more percentage of stocks are likely to make decision to maximizing the shareholdersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ wealth. 4.2.2 Forecast Horizon Based on the previous studies, firm characteristic was included as a control variable to determinant of the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. Forecast horizon is an important element to obtain the accuracy outcome of information. The different duration of forecast period can result different result and assumption. For example, previous study that the shorten forecast horizon tend to result less biased and less extreme (Capstaff, Paudyal, Rees, 1995). This mean the longer the forecast horizon is more exposure to more biased and more extreme. The shorten and longer horizon are depending on the analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ reputation which the longer horizon required more information compare to shorten horizon forecast because the more longer the analysts mean more information available which will affect the analysts credibility. 4.3 Accuracy of AnalystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Forecast 4.3.1 Dispersion Dispersion occurred when the disagreement among the analyst with the regard to expected Earnings per share (EPS) of a given form (Athanassakos Kalimipalli, 2003). Previous study finds that accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast has negative relationship with dispersion (Imhoff G. J. Lobo, 1992). To overcome this problem, previous researcher finds that availability of information will enhance the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast and reduce the degree of dispersion (Kwon, 2002). Hence, this study will use dispersion result to determine the accuracy earning which influence by corporate governance factors. 4.3.2 Error Forecast error is the difference between the actual or real and the predicted or forecast value of a time series or any other phenomenon of interest. Abarbanell and Bernard (1992) find that errors are positively related to the prior earnings change. The available information is important to obtained forecast accuracy. Ball and Brawn (1968) find that accounting information is use to predict the earning price. Kim and Verrecchia (1991) find the positive relationship between share-price response and the accuracy of management forecasts. While another study find negative relationship between the share-price and management forecasts errors (Laurent, 2000). Based on previous studies, this study will use corporate governance factors to influence the forecast error and determining the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. 5.0 Conceptual Framework Hypotheses Development. Independent Variable Dependent Variable ACCURACY OF ANALYSTSÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ FORECAST CORPORATE GOVERNANCE The independent of the Board 1. Dispersion The size of the Board 2. Error The CEO Duality Structure The Independent of Audit Committee Ownership Structure ii. Forecast Horizon Control Variables Four hypotheses are develops in this study: H1 relates to the link between the independent of Board and accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. H2 relates to the link between the size of Board and accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. H3 relates to the link between the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCEO DualityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? structure and accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. H4 relates to link between the independent of Audit Committee and accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. 5.1 The independent of Board and Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. Independent Board of Director who is does not hold any executive position in the organization. Core, Holthausen Larker (1999) specify that fewer independent of Board of director cause to poor monitoring. The independent board of director has significantly positive relationship with the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006). H1: Higher number of independent of board is associated with higher accuracy of analysts forecast. 5.2 Size of Board and Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. Board director size is referring to the total number of director exist in the organization. Previous researcher used the agency theory and assumed that larger board will consists of various education background, industrial background, and also skills (Haron, 2006). Based on Yermack (1996) larger board reduce the board effectiveness. The previous study find the board of directorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ size should be small because small size will lead the board function effectively (Smale, Patricoft, D.Marcus, D.W.Johnson, 1995). H2: Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast has negatively associated with the Size of board. 5.3 The Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCEO DualityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? Structure and Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCEO DualityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? exists when an organization has the person hold the CEO position and at the same time is a chairman of Board of Director in the company. The duality or multiple positions such as chairman and board of director are common practiced among the listed firm in Malaysia (Haron, 2006). Prior studies argue find that present of CEO Duality in an organization is reflecting to poor governance (Jensen, 1993; Yermack, 1996). Previous researchers find company CEOÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s that acting dual role do have lesser shareholder return (Rechner D.R.Dalton, 1989) H3: Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast has negatively associated to CEO Duality. 5.4 Independent of Audit Committee and Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast Audit committee is a committee formally appointed by full board and responsible to consider and report on matters comprised of financial reporting and governance procedures and the organization audit and other matters which referred by the board (Kulansingam, 2002). Several study find presence of an audit committee is associated with lesser incidences of error in financial reporting. Klein (2002b) finds that less independent of audit committee cause decreases in earning management. H4: Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast has positively associated with Independent of Audit Committee. 6. Research Methodology 6.1 Sample Selection To pursue this study, firstly the researcher has to select 100 companies which are listed in Bursa Malaysia. The selection of companies is base on random sampling. The researcher will use fully the secondary data in this study. The information sources will basically from the Company Annual Report and Institutional Broker Estimate System (IBES) consist of year 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009. This study uses information from year 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 because the MCCG start revised on 2007. So, this study will examine the effect of corporate governance before revised and after revised. The Annual Report of the selected companies can be obtained from the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s website from internet. IBES provides data to calculate analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast accuracy which can be obtained from DataStream System and the system is available in Management School, University Sains Malaysia. Based on the information, this study will compare the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast between year 2006 to 2007, 2006 to 2008 and 2006 to 2009. This study will use 2006 as the final year of before revised and compare it with the 2007, 2008 and 2009 which are after revised. The implementation of revised corporate governance is mandated to all public listed companies. Thus, this study will examine the effect of the corporate governance before the revised on 2006 and the revised on 2007 until 2009 to the Malaysian Public Listed Companies. Furthermore, this study will examine the different between the actual earning and forecast earning. This will identify the dispersion and error between the actual and forecast earnings. 6.2 Measure the forecast Accuracy To measure the accuracy, this study follows the previous study done by Duru and Reeb (2002). For each firm-year 2006 to 2009, this study will estimate the ACCURACY as the total different between the IBES consent forecast of annual earnings (made 9 months before the earnings announcement date) and the actual annual earnings which reported by IBES. ACCURACY = (-1) (FCAST-ACTUAL) PRICE Where ACTUAL is the actual annual earnings which reported by IBES; FCAST is the consent analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast made nine months before the end of the fiscal year; and PRICE is the closing stock price one day before the consent analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. 6.3 Measure of Corporate Governance This study will use Annual Report of the selected companies to obtain the corporate governance information. This study will look into four (4) dimensions under the corporate governance factors; the independent of the Board, the size of the Board, the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCEO DualityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? structure and the independent of Audit Committee. Based on the information, this study will estimate four (4) proxies for a company. This study will use EVIEWS software to analyse the descriptive, univariate and multivariate regression. 6.4 Control Variables When estimating the relationship between the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast and the corporate governance, this study include two sets of control variables. The first control variable is ownership structure and second control variable is forecast horizons that affect the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. Since this study measure four (4) proxies for corporate governance at the end of prior year, this study will also measure the ownership structure and forecast horizon at the same time. At the end current year, which is the same time this study measure accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. 7.0 Expected Findings This study expected the corporate governance will influence the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast in selected to Malaysian public listed companies. This result will consistent to previous study finds that better corporate governance tends to issue more specific accuracy of the analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast (Ajinkya, Bhoraj, Sengupta, 2005). Byard and Weintrop (2006) find better corporate governance firm contribute to better analyst forecast. To examine the affect on the corporate governance, this study examines few dimensions under corporate governance which effect the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. This study expected the hypotheses conducted under study will result consistent with the previous result. 7.1 Relationship between the independent of Board and Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast This study expects the findings will shows the independent of board has positively associated with the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. Then, this finding is consistent with previous study; the independent board of director has significantly positive relationship with the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006). This outcome will show the situation of selected companies whether the corporate governance practise in the companies contribute to achieve accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. 7.2 Relation between the Size of Board and Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. This study expects the findings will shows the size of board has negatively associated with accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. This is consistent with previous study by Yermack (1996) find larger board reduce the board effectiveness. The size of the recommended board is not discover by previous researcher, however, the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast which measures under dispersion and error will determine the appropriate size for the selected companies. 7.3 Relationship between the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCEO DualityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? Structure and Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast This study expects the finding will shows the CEO Duality has negatively associated with the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. This is consistent with previous study that finds the presence of CEO Duality in organization has significantly negative relationship with the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast (Byrad, Li, Weintrop, 2006). Most of the Malaysian companies exist the present of CEO Duality structure. Thus, this dimension will clarify how the selected companies practice their corporate governance in the companies. 7.4 Relationship between the Independent of Audit Committee and Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. This study expects the findings will shows the Independent of audit committee has positively associated with the Accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast. This is consistent with the previous study by Klein (2002b) finds that less independent of audit committee cause decreases in earning management. Thus, the result of this finding will provide the effect of independent audit committee role in the selected companies contribute toward the accuracy of analystsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ forecast.
Posted by Dessie Seiler at 1:24 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(53) " great focus on asylum seekers in the British media\." Abstract A growing number of asylum seekers in the UK led to the great media focus on this group of foreigners. As the media presented asylum seekers and refugees in an unfavourable light and emphasized the negative consequences of these massive arrivals, the British citizens and politicians started to perceive them as a social problem. In order to address this problem, the British government implemented strict measures aiming to reduce a number of asylum applications in the UK. We will write a custom essay sample on Asylum seekers and refugees as a social problem in the UK or any similar topic only for you Order Now Recently, many academic scholars and organizations underlined that these measures had a very negative impact on the lives of asylum seekers in the UK. The financial support for asylum seekers in the UK is limited to the minimum; they meet difficulties in accessing basic public services such as health care or education; they are not allowed to work during their application process. The evidence show that a growing number of asylum seekers is vulnerable to poverty and destitution; discrimination and social exclusion (Prior et.al., 2008; Williams and Kaye, 2010; Crawley, 2010). Nonetheless, the government seems to undermine these postulates and continues its strict policy towards asylum seekers and refugees. Introduction Historically, the United Kingdom has been characterized by a long tradition of granting asylum to significant number of foreigners. In return, these people have often contributed to the development of the UK. Amongst the best known individuals are Joseph Malin and Michael Marks. As the number of people seeking asylum in the UK has grown rapidly from the early 1990s, the Home Office was not able to cope with this high volume of application and many asylum cases remained unsolved. At the same time, the British media has started to promote the perception of asylum seekers as economic workers whose decisions on where to seek asylum are based on the opportunities for employment and welfare benefits. Thus, the issue of asylum seekers became a top concern of the British policy-makers. (Prior et.al., 2008). Prior to considering the problem of asylum seekers in the UK, it seems to be crucial to define the term asylum seeker and refugee. Following the UNESCO definition, asylum seeker is a person who Ã¢â¬Å"has applied for protection as a refugee and is awaiting determination of his or her status.Ã¢â¬ (UNESCO, 2011). The reason for seeking protection is a fear of torture or prosecution in origin country. In turn, refugee is a person who has been given protection (UNESCO, 2011). Asylum seeker becomes a refugee when the local immigration authority (or refugee authority) decides that the candidate fits the international definition of refugee. According to the international law, to become a refugee a person needs to meet the criteria for refugee status regulated by the Article 1(A)2 of the 1951 Refugee Convention. Under the following article these are three basic characteristics of refugee. First, a person needs to be outside the country of origin or the country of his previous habitual r esidence. Second, the person is unable to stay safe and protected in that country due to the fear of prosecution or torture. Third, the fear of being prosecuted is based on at least one of the following reasons: race, religion, nationality, membership of the particular social group or political belief (RULAC, 2012). Due to the word count, the term asylum seekers will refer to both asylum seekers and refugees in the following work. The following essay aims to examine why asylum seekers have been perceived as a social problem in the UK as well as to analyse how the government approaches this problem. First, the essay considers the changes in the number of asylum seekers in the UK over the past twenty years. Further, the essay discusses different perspectives of asylum seekers in the social context. Finally, the essay presents the government responses to the problem. Asylum seekers in the UK Ã¢â¬â statistical approach From the 1990s the UK has been characterized by significant fluctuations in numbers of asylum applications, as demonstrated in Appendix 1. Between 1993 and 2002 the number of asylum applications has increased rapidly from 19,700 to its peak of 103,080 in 2002. In this period of time a number of applications fell slightly in 1996 and 2001, based on year-to-year changes (Institute of Race Relations). The four major countries, from which the asylum applications were addressed to the UK at that time were Iraq, Zimbabwe, Somalia and Afghanistan. Wars, conflicts and political oppression, being the key features of these countries in the 1990s are perceived as major causes of the dramatic increase of the asylum applications to the UK from the mid-1990s (Prior et.al., 2008). From 2002 the number of applications was gradually reduced, reaching 17,916 in 2010 (Refugee Council, 2011). Currently, most of the applicants come from Pakistan, Iran, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan (Refugee Council, 2011). S uch decrease is a consequence of the government policy, strongly restricting the border control in the past decade. Additionally, from 2002 the government continues to reject almost 70% of applications each year. In 2010 68% of applications were refused; 24% of them were granted the refugee status; 7% Ã¢â¬â Discretionary Leave, while 1% Ã¢â¬â Humanitarian Protection (Refugee Council, 2012). Nonetheless, the UK continues to be a country with one of the highest numbers of asylum applications in the European Union, next to Sweden, France, Greece and Germany, as presented in Appendix 2 (Eurostat, 2012). According to the report prepared by the Asylum and Destitution Working Group, there are four major pull factors that shape, shaping a decision to apply for asylum in the UK. These are the perception of the UK as a safe, democratic and tolerant country; the ability to speak English or willingness to learn the language; previous connections (including colonialism) between the country of origin or residence and the UK; and having relatives or family in the UK (Prior et.al., 2008). Asylum seekers and refugees as a social problem in the UK A rapidly growing number of asylum applicants in the UK led the great focus on asylum seekers in the British media. You read "Asylum seekers and refugees as a social problem in the UK" in category "Essay examples" The media started to present asylum seekers in an unfavourable light, emphasizing the negative socio-economic effects of the massive inflows of foreigners. For instance, the Daily Express has published 22 negative front page stories on asylum within 31 days period of time in 2003, often using very abusive language. Further, the issue of asylum became a hot topic of the debate between the two main parties during the 2005 general election (Prior et.al., 2008). Exaggeration of the issue and misinformation resulted in spreading the perception of asylum seekers as a thread to the British people in the socio-economic context. Numerous research and surveys conducted amongst the British seem to confirm such approach. For instance, the IACÃ¢â¬â¢s Citizens Speak research from 2008 revealed that most of the respondent perceived the asylum seekers as economic migrants, stealing jobs and welfare benefits from the British. Further, they believed that asylum seekers had a privileged access to housing and public services as well as that there were too many asylum seekers within the country. In turn, the 2003 Citizenship Survey conducted amongst the young British showed that 15% of them cited prejudice against the asylum seekers (Aspinall and Waters, 2010). Also the YouGov survey from 2011 demonstrated that the respondents had the poorest perception of asylum seekers amongst various groups of people, including the categories such as people from ethnic minorities; people from Christian religious groups; or people with disabilities (YouGov, 2011). Additionally, another survey conducted by YouGov in 2008 disclosed that 59% of the respondents argued that asylum seekers were a Ã¢â¬Å"drain on resourcesÃ¢â¬ and did not contribute to the economic growth of the UK. Addit ionally, 30% of the respondents saw the reduction in the number of asylum seekers as the most welcome change in the British system (YouGov, 2008). It is important to add that at the same time the British have a highly exaggerated view on the number of the asylum applications in the UK. In YouGov survey from 2007 46% of the respondents estimated this number at 80,000 when additional 31% Ã¢â¬â at 160,000. In fact, there was actually 23,430 asylum applicants in 2007 (Prior et.al., 2008). While the British media built the image of asylum seekers as a social problem amongst the British citizens, many academic scholars emphasized that asylum seekers are a disadvantaged group and that they often have to face various social problems. In particular, asylum seekers are vulnerable to poverty and destitution (Aspinall and Waters, 2010). They usually arrive to the UK without any financial reserves. Additionally, the financial support offered by the government to asylum seekers constitutes only 70% of Income Support, while they are not permitted to work (Buster, 2010). According to the British Red Cross in 2006 there was approximately 26,000 asylum seekers living in poverty in the UK (Prior et.al., 2008). Asylum seekers also have a limited access to the basic health care services mainly due to the registration problems (i.e. lack of documents proving the address or identity; lack of interpreting services). Similarly, asylum seekers face difficulties in education and training what is mostly caused by limited knowledge of the British education system, poor level of English and high costs (NIACE, 2009). Finally, asylum seekers are the victims of crime rather than offenders. Although there are no official records, the research conducted by Stanley in 2001 revealed that a third of the respondents have experienced racism, harassment or bullying. Also 81% of the asylum seeking women interviewed by the Refugee Strategy Women Group in 2007 admitted that they had experienced racial harassment (Aspinall and Waters, 2010). The policy response to the problem of asylum seekers As asylum seekers started to be perceived as a thread by the British society, the government aimed to reduce their number by implementing new policies and regulations from 1999. The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act tightened the borders control to block new arrivals to the UK by extending visa requirements, pre-entry controls as well as by imposing financial penalties on the companies that transported passengers without permission to enter the UK (Crawley, 2010). The 2002 Immigration and Asylum Act gave greater power to the authorities responsible for application process, including the right to detain the application at any time during the process, not just prior to removal. Additionally, people applying for legal staying in the UK by granting citizenship need to meet English recruitments; take Life in the UK test and attend citizenship ceremony (Guardian, 2009). Further, in 2004 the government established the juxtaposed UK border control in France and Belgium and thus, the UK was abl e to decide whether the foreigners are eligible to enter the UK on the territory of another country. Further in the framework of the New Asylum Model from 2007, the application process became accelerated (new screening process; single case workers), while detentions and deportations became commonly used (Aspinall and Waters, 2010). More importantly, the new legislation affected the asylum seekersÃ¢â¬â¢ access to accommodation and welfare. The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act established the financial support for asylum seekers at the level of 70% of Income Support. Additionally, the food vouchers were granted to the asylum seekers instead of the cash. In 2007 the government reduced the support rate for lone parents (66% of Income Support) and for the single adult above the age of 25 (55% of Income Support) (Williams and Kaye, 2010). Despite numerous controversies around the effectiveness of the voucher system, the government still supports such solution. Further, the government implemented the dispersal policies, providing the accommodation and housing to asylum seekers on Ã¢â¬Ëno-choiceÃ¢â¬â¢ basis (Crawley, 2010). From 2002 asylum seekers are not permitted to work when their application is considered. There are only a few exceptions from this rule. It is crucial to emphasize that despite the overall fall in asylum applications to the UK and rising concerns on the government policy on asylum, the government continues to implement restrictive measures. These measures often worsen further the living conditions of asylum seekers in the UK (Prior et.al., 2008). Conclusions The UK is one of the main destinations of asylum seekers in Europe. From the 1990s the number of asylum applications rose sharply, reaching its peak in 2002. Asylum seekers started to be perceived as a thread within the British society. Such negative attitudes were mainly caused by the British media, postulating that asylum seekers steal jobs and welfare benefits from the British. Thus, the government aim became to reduce the number of asylum seekers by new legislation. From 1999 the government implemented numerous regulations and policies. Particularly important were the 1999 Immigration Asylum Act, the 2002 Immigration and Asylum Act as well as the 2007 New Asylum Model. As a consequence, the UK border control was tightened, including higher visa requirement and pre-entry control. The asylum process became faster and more effective; the detentions and deportations are commonly used. The government also decided to limit the access to welfare for asylum seekers, seeing it as an impor tant pull factor for high number of applications. To achieve that, various measures have been implemented. Amongst the most important were dispersal policies, withdrawing the rights to work for these asylum seekers whose applications has not been decided; as well as low financial support delivered in kind instead of cash. While the government is proud of reducing in 2010 the number of asylum application to the level from 1993; a number of academic scholars postulate that asylum seekers are not a thread to the British. Asylum seekers do not take the employment opportunities from the British. They have a very limited access to the welfare benefits. They also do not increase the crime level across the country. The scholars underline that asylum seekers are at the risk of poverty, discrimination and social exclusion due to the government policy. Additionally, some international organizations (i.e. Amnesty International; the Refugee Council) argue that the British policy Ã¢â¬Å"may also have the impact of denying the internationally agreed rights of people to seek asylumÃ¢â¬ (Aspinall and Watters, 2010, p.10). Despite these claims made by the academic scholars and various organizations, the British government seems to continue its strict policy towards asylum seekers and discourage asylum seekers from c hoosing the UK. It indicates that the government still perceives asylum seekers as a social problem rather than notice serious social problems that asylum seekers struggle with.pplications in selected European countries, 2007. References: Aspinall P. and Watters (2010). Refugees and asylum seekers. A review from an equality and human rights perspective. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission. Buster M. (2010). Asylum seekers and refugees. London: Social Inclusion Unit. Crowley (2010). Chance or choice. Understanding why asylum seekers come to the UK. London: Refugee Council. Eurostat (2012). Asylum applications [online] Available from: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/graphDownload.do?tab=graphlanguage=enplugin=1pcode=tps00021 (Accessed on 24.06.2012). Guardian (2009). Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 [online] Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/jan/15/nationality-immigration-asylum-act (Accessed on 24.06.2012) Institute of Race Relations (2012). Asylum Statistics [online] available from: http://www.irr.org.uk/research/statistics/asylum/ (Accessed on 24.06.2012). NIACE (2009). Refugee and asylum seekers in the UK: the challenges of accessing education and employment. Leicester: NIACE. Prior J., McDowell , Morell G., Taruvinga Y., Zanre L., Garner K. and Stranack A. (2008). Asylum Matters: Restoring Trust in the UK Asylum System. London: The Centre for Social Justice. Refugee Council (2011). Asylum Statistics. London: Refugee Council. Refugee Council (2012). Asylum Statistics. London: Refugee Council. RULAC (2012). International Refugee Law [online] Available from: http://www.adh-geneva.ch/RULAC/international_refugee_law.php (Accessed on 24.06.2012). UNESCO (2011). Asylum seeker [online] Available from: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/asylum-seeker/ (Accessed on 24.06.2012). YouGov (2008). Juniper TV Survey Results. London: YouGov. YouGov (2011). Stonewall attitude tables. London: YouGov. Williams R. and Kaye M. (2010). At the end of the line. Restoring the integrity of the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s asylum system. London: Amnesty International. How to cite Asylum seekers and refugees as a social problem in the UK, Essay examples
Posted by Dessie Seiler at 1:10 PM
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about theE- Business and Opportunities for JB HI-FI Company. Answer: This report reflects how retail stores in Australia are adapting towards online business with a view to increase their overall market share. With the increasing ramification of economic changes and complex business conditions, each and every organization is adapting online business in their business functioning. There are several stores such as Wesfarmers, Woolworths and Mayer who have installed cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning (Van Everdingen, Van Hillegersberg and Waarts, 2010). This system is adopted by them with a view to ease their manual work and make automation in their business functioning. It is considered that with the changing business environments, clients are more clients towards company which uses sophisticated technologies in their value chain activities (Katerattanakul, Lee and Hong, 2014). In this report, JB HI-FI Company has been taken into consideration. It is an Australian electronic goods selling company. This co mpany has installed cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning which will help clients to shop online through its developed dashboards. This cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning will also increase the overall communication between employees to employees and employees to clients. The operating system of JB-HI-FI is completely based on the cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in which all the works are segregated to different departments such as functional, budgetary, matrix project department. It is evaluated that clients needs and demand have been changing throughout the time (Gerow, et al. 2014). Many retails stores such as Wesfarmers, Red Ballon and Dhaka have adopted cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning so that they could take their business online and create effective brand image in clients. Market. This level of technologies ado ptions allows clients to do window shopping effectively by surfing on net (Flamholtz and Randle, 2012). This not only saves clients time but also allow them to broad their choices with millions of products choice. This level of cyber computing enterprises resources planning system has shown a bright future for JB-Hi-FI to increase its overall turnover and effective business functioning. If JB-HI-FI could consistently adopt this level of cyber computing enterprises resources planning system to keep its business online with unique features as per the expectation and clients interest then it will surely result to bright future and effective brand image of company (Flamholtz and Randle, 2012). Now in the end, it could be inferred that this level of cyber computing enterprises resources planning system will bring more simplicity and effective business functioning for retails stores in Australia. However, innovation and creation of technologies will determine the vulnerability of online business of retail stores throughout the time. However, with the present level of demand and clients inclinations, if retails stores wants to create effective brand image and increase their turnover then adoption of online business is very much required part of business. Therefore, it could be inferred that retails stores and their online business has effective and positive future. References Flamholtz, E.G. and Randle, Y., 2012. Corporate culture, business models, competitive advantage, strategic assets and the bottom line: Theoretical and measurement issues.Journal of Human Resource Costing Accounting,16(2), pp.76-94. Gerow, J.E., Grover, V., Thatcher, J.B. and Roth, P.L., 2014. Looking toward the future of IT-business strategic alignment through the past: A meta-analysis.Mis Quarterly,38(4), pp.1059-1085. Katerattanakul, P., J. Lee, J. and Hong, S., 2014. Effect of business characteristics and ERP implementation on business outcomes: An exploratory study of Korean manufacturing firms.Management Research Review,37(2), pp.186-206. Van Everdingen, Y., Van Hillegersberg, J. and Waarts, E., 2010. Enterprise resource planning: ERP adoption by European midsize companies.Communications of the ACM,43(4), pp.27-31.
Posted by Dessie Seiler at 9:59 PM